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Eu 21 Em U21-EM Qualifikation 2021: Spielplan & Ergebnisse

Die UFußball-Europameisterschaft, kurz auch nur UEM genannt, ist ein von der UEFA ausgerichtetes Turnier für Nationalmannschaften, deren Spieler bei Beginn der Qualifikation das Lebensjahr noch nicht abgeschlossen haben. Mit einer Niederlage gegen Spanien im Stadio Friuli von Udine endete eine starke UEURO für die deutschen Junioren mit einer Enttäuschung. Verbände; European Qualifiers · UEFA EURO · UEFA EURO · UEFA Nations League · UEFA UEM. Junioren & Amateure; UEFA UEM · UEFA. Die Endrunde der UFußball-Europameisterschaft fand vom bis Juni UEFA U European conversationalist.co · Logo UEFA U Die UFußball-Europameisterschaft (englisch UEFA UNDER21 Championship), kurz auch nur UEM genannt, ist ein von der UEFA ausgerichtetes Turnier.

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Eu 21 Em - U21-EM Qualifikation

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Kythera Greece The island of Kythera in Greece, also known as Tsirigo by the locals, lies at the crossroads of 3 seas and is known as the birthplace of the Goddess Aphrodite.

Dec : Smart Rural 21 project started. Jan : Strategy development started with five preselected villages. Jan - Jun : Application to become one of the additional 12 villages.

Funded by. The Court of Auditors is legally obliged to provide the Parliament and the Council specifically, the Economic and Financial Affairs Council with "a statement of assurance as to the reliability of the accounts and the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions".

The European Court of Auditors has signed off the European Union accounts every year since and, while making it clear that the European Commission has more work to do, has highlighted that most of the errors take place at national level.

EU member states retain all powers not explicitly handed to the European Union. In some areas the EU enjoys exclusive competence. These are areas in which member states have renounced any capacity to enact legislation.

In other areas the EU and its member states share the competence to legislate. While both can legislate, member states can only legislate to the extent to which the EU has not.

In other policy areas the EU can only co-ordinate, support and supplement member state action but cannot enact legislation with the aim of harmonising national laws.

That a particular policy area falls into a certain category of competence is not necessarily indicative of what legislative procedure is used for enacting legislation within that policy area.

Different legislative procedures are used within the same category of competence, and even with the same policy area. The distribution of competences in various policy areas between Member States and the Union is divided in the following three categories:.

The EU is based on a series of treaties. These first established the European Community and the EU, and then made amendments to those founding treaties.

These legal powers include the ability to enact legislation [p] which can directly affect all member states and their inhabitants. Under the principle of supremacy , national courts are required to enforce the treaties that their member states have ratified, and thus the laws enacted under them, even if doing so requires them to ignore conflicting national law, and within limits even constitutional provisions.

The direct effect and supremacy doctrines were not explicitly set out in the European Treaties but were developed by the Court of Justice itself over the s, apparently under the influence of its then most influential judge, Frenchman Robert Lecourt [].

The General Court mainly deals with cases taken by individuals and companies directly before the EU's courts, [] and the European Union Civil Service Tribunal adjudicates in disputes between the European Union and its civil service.

The treaties declare that the EU itself is "founded on the values of respect for human dignity , freedom , democracy, equality , the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities The charter is a codified catalogue of fundamental rights against which the EU's legal acts can be judged.

It consolidates many rights which were previously recognised by the Court of Justice and derived from the "constitutional traditions common to the member states.

The EU is independent from the Council of Europe, although they share purpose and ideas, especially on the rule of law, human rights and democracy.

The EU has also promoted human rights issues in the wider world. The EU opposes the death penalty and has proposed its worldwide abolition.

Abolition of the death penalty is a condition for EU membership. The main legal acts of the EU come in three forms: regulations , directives , and decisions.

Regulations become law in all member states the moment they come into force, without the requirement for any implementing measures, [v] and automatically override conflicting domestic provisions.

The details of how they are to be implemented are left to member states. Decisions offer an alternative to the two above modes of legislation.

They are legal acts which only apply to specified individuals, companies or a particular member state.

They are most often used in competition law , or on rulings on State Aid, but are also frequently used for procedural or administrative matters within the institutions.

Regulations, directives, and decisions are of equal legal value and apply without any formal hierarchy. The European Ombudsman was established by the Maastricht Treaty.

The ombudsman is elected by the European Parliament for the length of the Parliament's term, and the position is renewable.

The borders inside the Schengen Area between Germany and Austria. Seat of Frontex in Warsaw, Poland. Since the creation of the EU in , it has developed its competencies in the area of justice and home affairs; initially at an intergovernmental level and later by supranationalism.

Accordingly, the Union has legislated in areas such as extradition , [] family law, [] asylum law, [] and criminal justice.

The Union has also established agencies to co-ordinate police, prosecutorial and immigrations controls across the member states: Europol for co-operation of police forces, [] Eurojust for co-operation between prosecutors, [] and Frontex for co-operation between border control authorities.

This co-operation had to particularly be developed with the advent of open borders through the Schengen Agreement and the associated cross border crime.

Foreign policy co-operation between member states dates from the establishment of the Community in , when member states negotiated as a bloc in international trade negotiations under the EU's common commercial policy.

The aims of the CFSP are to promote both the EU's own interests and those of the international community as a whole, including the furtherance of international co-operation, respect for human rights, democracy, and the rule of law.

The unanimity and difficult issues treated under the CFSP sometimes lead to disagreements, such as those which occurred over the war in Iraq.

The coordinator and representative of the CFSP within the EU is the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy who speaks on behalf of the EU in foreign policy and defence matters, and has the task of articulating the positions expressed by the member states on these fields of policy into a common alignment.

The High Representative heads up the European External Action Service EEAS , a unique EU department [] that has been officially implemented and operational since 1 December on the occasion of the first anniversary of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon.

Besides the emerging international policy of the European Union, the international influence of the EU is also felt through enlargement.

The perceived benefits of becoming a member of the EU act as an incentive for both political and economic reform in states wishing to fulfil the EU's accession criteria, and are considered an important factor contributing to the reform of European formerly Communist countries.

The predecessors of the European Union were not devised as a military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufficient for defence purposes.

France is the only member officially recognised as a nuclear weapon state holding a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.

Following the Kosovo War in , the European Council agreed that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO".

To that end, a number of efforts were made to increase the EU's military capability, notably the Helsinki Headline Goal process.

EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from middle and northern Africa to the western Balkans and western Asia.

It aims to detect and stop illegal immigration, human trafficking and terrorist infiltration. In the European Commission presented its proposal for a new European Border and Coast Guard Agency having a stronger role and mandate along with national authorities for border management.

In an EU consisting of 27 members, substantial security and defence co-operation is increasingly relying on collaboration among all member states.

In , the average among EU countries was 0. The EU uses foreign relations instruments like the European Neighbourhood Policy which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.

These countries, primarily developing countries, include some who seek to one day become either a member state of the European Union , or more closely integrated with the European Union.

The EU offers financial assistance to countries within the European Neighbourhood, so long as they meet the strict conditions of government reform, economic reform and other issues surrounding positive transformation.

This process is normally underpinned by an Action Plan, as agreed by both Brussels and the target country. International recognition of sustainable development as a key element is growing steadily.

The SDGs recognize that all countries must stimulate action in the following key areas - people, planet , prosperity, peace and partnership - in order to tackle the global challenges that are crucial for the survival of humanity.

Partnership and cooperation agreements are bilateral agreements with non-member nations. The European Union is the largest exporter in the world [] and as of the largest importer of goods and services.

In the eurozone , trade is helped by not having any currency differences to deal with amongst most members. The European Union Association Agreement does something similar for a much larger range of countries, partly as a so-called soft approach 'a carrot instead of a stick' to influence the politics in those countries.

When the EU negotiates trade related agreement outside the WTO framework, the subsequent agreement must be approved by each individual EU member state government.

The European Union has concluded free trade agreements FTAs [] and other agreements with a trade component with many countries worldwide and is negotiating with many others.

The currency union represents million EU citizens. Of the top largest corporations in the world measured by revenue in , had their headquarters in the EU.

Two of the original core objectives of the European Economic Community were the development of a common market, subsequently becoming a single market , and a customs union between its member states.

The single market involves the free circulation of goods, capital, people, and services within the EU , [] and the customs union involves the application of a common external tariff on all goods entering the market.

Once goods have been admitted into the market they cannot be subjected to customs duties, discriminatory taxes or import quotas , as they travel internally.

The non-EU member states of Iceland , Norway , Liechtenstein and Switzerland participate in the single market but not in the customs union.

Free movement of capital is intended to permit movement of investments such as property purchases and buying of shares between countries.

Post-Maastricht there has been a rapidly developing corpus of ECJ judgements regarding this initially neglected freedom. The free movement of capital is unique insofar as it is granted equally to non-member states.

The free movement of persons means that EU citizens can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country.

This required the lowering of administrative formalities and recognition of professional qualifications of other states. The free movement of services and of establishment allows self-employed persons to move between member states to provide services on a temporary or permanent basis.

This lacuna has been addressed by the recently passed Directive on services in the internal market which aims to liberalise the cross border provision of services.

The creation of a European single currency became an official objective of the European Economic Community in In , having negotiated the structure and procedures of a currency union, the member states signed the Maastricht Treaty and were legally bound to fulfil the agreed-on rules including the convergence criteria if they wanted to join the monetary union.

The states wanting to participate had first to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. In the currency union started, first as an accounting currency with eleven member states joining.

In , the currency was fully put into place, when euro notes and coins were issued and national currencies began to phase out in the eurozone, which by then consisted of 12 member states.

The eurozone constituted by the EU member states which have adopted the euro has since grown to 19 countries. The aim of this financial control system is to ensure the economic stability of the EU.

To prevent the joining states from getting into financial trouble or crisis after entering the monetary union, they were obliged in the Maastricht treaty to fulfil important financial obligations and procedures, especially to show budgetary discipline and a high degree of sustainable economic convergence, as well as to avoid excessive government deficits and limit the government debt to a sustainable level.

The European Commission working sectors are: Aeronautics, automotive, biotechnology, chemicals, construction, cosmetics, defense, electronics, firearms, food and drink, gambling, healthcare, maritime, mechanics, medical, postal, raw materials, space, textile, tourism, toys and Social economy Societas cooperativa Europaea.

The EU has had legislative power in the area of energy policy for most of its existence; this has its roots in the original European Coal and Steel Community.

The introduction of a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was approved at the meeting of the European Council in October , and the first draft policy was published in January The EU has five key points in its energy policy: increase competition in the internal market , encourage investment and boost interconnections between electricity grids; diversify energy resources with better systems to respond to a crisis; establish a new treaty framework for energy co-operation with Russia while improving relations with energy-rich states in Central Asia [] and North Africa; use existing energy supplies more efficiently while increasing renewable energy commercialisation ; and finally increase funding for new energy technologies.

There is a strong dependence on Russian energy that the EU has been attempting to reduce. Rail transport in Europe is being synchronised with the European Rail Traffic Management System ERTMS , an initiative to greatly enhance safety, increase efficiency of trains and enhance cross-border interoperability of rail transport in Europe by replacing signalling equipment with digitised mostly wireless versions and by creating a single Europe-wide standard for train control and command systems.

The developing European transport policies will increase the pressure on the environment in many regions by the increased transport network.

In the pre EU members, the major problem in transport deals with congestion and pollution. After the recent enlargement, the new states that joined since added the problem of solving accessibility to the transport agenda.

The Galileo positioning system is another EU infrastructure project. The Galileo project was launched partly to reduce the EU's dependency on the US-operated Global Positioning System , but also to give more complete global coverage and allow for greater accuracy, given the aged nature of the GPS system.

The policy's price controls and market interventions led to considerable overproduction. These were intervention stores of products bought up by the Community to maintain minimum price levels.

To dispose of surplus stores, they were often sold on the world market at prices considerably below Community guaranteed prices, or farmers were offered subsidies amounting to the difference between the Community and world prices to export their products outside the Community.

This system has been criticised for under-cutting farmers outside Europe, especially those in the developing world.

Since the beginning of the s, the CAP has been subject to a series of reforms. Initially, these reforms included the introduction of set-aside in , where a proportion of farm land was deliberately withdrawn from production, milk quotas and, more recently, the 'de-coupling' or disassociation of the money farmers receive from the EU and the amount they produce by the Fischler reforms in Agriculture expenditure will move away from subsidy payments linked to specific produce, toward direct payments based on farm size.

This is intended to allow the market to dictate production levels. The EU operates a competition policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the single market.

The Competition Commissioner , currently Margrethe Vestager , is one of the most powerful positions in the Commission, notable for the ability to affect the commercial interests of trans-national corporations.

The EU seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 6. The EU has long sought to mitigate the effects of free markets by protecting workers rights and preventing social and environmental dumping.

To this end it has adopted laws establishing minimum employment and environmental standards. The EU has also sought to coordinate the social security and health systems of member states to facilitate individuals exercising free movement rights and to ensure they maintain their ability to access social security and health services in other member states.

The European Social Charter is the main body that recognizes the social rights of European citizens. A European unemployment insurance has been proposed among others by the commissioner of Jobs Nicolas Schmit.

Housing, youth, childhood, Functional diversity or elderly care are supportive competencies of the European Union and can be financed by the European Social Fund.

Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds are supporting the development of underdeveloped regions of the EU. Such regions are primarily located in the states of central and southern Europe.

Demographic transition to a society of aging population, low fertility-rates and depopulation of non-metropolitan regions is tackled within this policies.

In , when the EEC was founded, it had no environmental policy. European policy-makers originally increased the EU's capacity to act on environmental issues by defining it as a trade problem.

The legal basis for EU environmental policy was established with the introduction of the Single European Act in Initially, EU environmental policy focused on Europe.

More recently, the EU has demonstrated leadership in global environmental governance, e. This international dimension is reflected in the EU's Sixth Environmental Action Programme, [] which recognises that its objectives can only be achieved if key international agreements are actively supported and properly implemented both at EU level and worldwide.

The Lisbon Treaty further strengthened the leadership ambitions. Mitigating climate change is one of the top priorities of EU environmental policy.

In the Elections to the European Parliament in , the green parties increased their power, possibly because of the rise of post materialist values.

Proposals to reach a zero carbon economy in the European Union by were suggested in - Almost all member states supported that goal at an EU summit in June Basic education is an area where the EU's role is limited to supporting national governments.

In higher education, the policy was developed in the s in programmes supporting exchanges and mobility. The most visible of these has been the Erasmus Programme , a university exchange programme which began in There are similar programmes for school pupils and teachers, for trainees in vocational education and training , and for adult learners in the Lifelong Learning Programme — These programmes are designed to encourage a wider knowledge of other countries and to spread good practices in the education and training fields across the EU.

Scientific development is facilitated through the EU's Framework Programmes , the first of which started in The aims of EU policy in this area are to co-ordinate and stimulate research.

The EU has no major competences in the field of health care and Article 35 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms that "A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and activities".

The European Commission 's Directorate-General for Health and Consumers seeks to align national laws on the protection of people's health, on the consumers' rights, on the safety of food and other products.

All EU and many other European countries offer their citizens a free European Health Insurance Card which, on a reciprocal basis, provides insurance for emergency medical treatment insurance when visiting other participating European countries.

The EU has some of the highest levels of life expectancy in the world, with Spain, Italy, Sweden, France, Malta, Ireland, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Greece all among the world's top 20 countries with the highest life expectancy.

The overall life expectancy in the EU in was Cultural co-operation between member states has been an interest of the EU since its inclusion as a community competency in the Maastricht Treaty.

Association football is by far the most popular sport in the European Union by the number of registered players.

The other sports with the most participants in clubs are tennis, basketball, swimming, athletics, golf, gymnastics, equestrian sports, handball, volleyball and sailing.

Sport is mainly the responsibility of the member states or other international organisations, rather than of the EU.

There are some EU policies that have affected sport, such as the free movement of workers, which was at the core of the Bosman ruling that prohibited national football leagues from imposing quotas on foreign players with European citizenship.

The Treaty of Lisbon requires any application of economic rules to take into account the specific nature of sport and its structures based on voluntary activity.

The flag used is the Flag of Europe , which consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background. Originally designed in for the Council of Europe, the flag was adopted by the European Communities , the predecessors of the present Union, in The Council of Europe gave the flag a symbolic description in the following terms, [] though the official symbolic description adopted by the EU omits the reference to the "Western world": [].

Against the blue sky of the Western world, the stars symbolise the peoples of Europe in a form of a circle, the sign of union. The number of stars is invariably twelve , the figure twelve being the symbol of perfection and entirety.

United in Diversity was adopted as the motto of the Union in the year , having been selected from proposals submitted by school pupils.

The anthem of the Union is an instrumental version of the prelude to the Ode to Joy , the 4th movement of Ludwig van Beethoven 's ninth symphony.

The anthem was adopted by European Community leaders in and has since been played on official occasions.

Known from the myth in which Zeus seduces her in the guise of a white bull, Europa has also been referred to in relation to the present Union.

Statues of Europa and the bull decorate several of the Union's institutions and a portrait of her is seen on the series of Euro banknotes.

The bull is, for its part, depicted on all residence permit cards. The Commission has named one of its central buildings in Brussels after Charlemagne and the city of Aachen has since awarded the Charlemagne Prize to champions of European unification.

Media freedom is a fundamental right that applies to all member states of the European Union and its citizens , as defined in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights as well as the European Convention on Human Rights.

The majority of media in the European Union are national-oriented. It provides support for the development, promotion and distribution of European works within Europe and beyond.

The European Union has had a significant positive economic impact on most member states. The European Union has contributed to peace in Europe, in particular by pacifying border disputes.

The European Union has contributed to the spread of democracy, in particular by encouraging democratic reforms in aspiring Eastern European member states after the collapse of the USSR.

Daniel Keleman argues that over time, the EU has proved beneficial to leaders who are overseeing democratic backsliding, as the EU is reluctant to intervene in domestic politics, gives the authoritarians funds which they can use to strengthen their regimes, and because freedom of movement within the EU allows dissenting citizens to leave their backsliding countries.

Cite error: A list-defined reference named "OED" is not used in the content see the help page. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from EU. Economic and political union of European states. For other uses, see EU disambiguation.

Latin Greek Cyrillic [3]. Website europa. Main article: History of the European Union. Main article: Ideas of European unity before Play media.

Main article: Treaties of the European Union. Main articles: Brexit , Brexit negotiations , and Brexit withdrawal agreement. Main article: Future enlargement of the European Union.

Main article: Demographics of the European Union. See also: List of cities in the European Union by population within city limits and list of urban areas in the European Union.

Main article: Languages of the European Union. See also: Euro English. Main article: Religion in the European Union. Main article: Member state of the European Union.

Main article: Geography of the European Union. Main article: European Parliament. Main article: European Council. Main article: European Commission.

Main article: Council of the European Union. Main article: Budget of the European Union. See also: European Citizens' Initiative.

Further information: Area of freedom, security and justice and Citizenship of the European Union. Europol Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands.

Eurojust Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands. Main article: Economy of the European Union. Clockwise from top left: A standardised passport design, displaying the name of the member state, the national arms and the words "European Union" given in their official language s.

Right: 19 of the 27 EU member states have adopted the euro as their legal tender. Main article: Energy policy of the European Union.

Main article: Transport in the European Union. Further information: European Commissioner for Transport. Main article: Common Agricultural Policy.

Less developed regions. Transition regions. More developed regions. Main article: Sport policies of the European Union.

Further information: European Heritage Label. European Union portal Europe portal. Three of them — English, French and German — have the higher status of procedural languages and are used in the day-to-day workings of the European institutions.

The population of the UK is roughly 0. Baltic: Latvian and Lithuanian. For more information see Special member state territories and the European Union.

See also: Factortame litigation : Factortame Ltd. Secretary of State for Transport No. This is a political and not a legal requirement for membership.

Amministrazione delle Finanze [] ECR Danish Finance Ministry. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 3 August Special Eurobarometer.

European Union: European Commission. Those two Treaties shall have the same legal value. The Union shall replace and succeed the European Community ".

Retrieved 1 February International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 11 December The United Nations. Retrieved 19 March European Union.

Europa web portal. Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 27 September Retrieved 29 June Europa Glossary.

Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 6 September The Council of the European Union. Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 10 August Group 8 Live now P Pts.

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In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom , and ultimately the Empire — , declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood A day will come when we shall see During the interwar period , the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.

In , the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations , precursor of the United Nations.

After World War II , European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated parts of the continent.

It also led directly to the founding of the Council of Europe in , the first great effort to bring the nations of Europe together, initially ten of them.

The Council focused primarily on values—human rights and democracy—rather than on economic or trade issues, and was always envisaged as a forum where sovereign governments could choose to work together, with no supra-national authority.

It raised great hopes of further European integration, and there were fevered debates in the two years that followed as to how this could be achieved.

But in , disappointed at what they saw as the lack of progress within the Council of Europe, six nations decided to go further and created the European Coal and Steel Community , which was declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe".

They also signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community Euratom for co-operation in developing nuclear energy.

Both treaties came into force in Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members.

During the s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power. Nevertheless, in an agreement was reached and on 1 July the Merger Treaty created a single set of institutions for the three communities, which were collectively referred to as the European Communities.

In , the Communities were enlarged to include Denmark including Greenland , which later left the Communities in , following a dispute over fishing rights , Ireland , and the United Kingdom.

In , the first direct elections to the European Parliament were held. Greece joined in , Portugal and Spain following in In , after the fall of the Eastern Bloc , the former East Germany became part of the Communities as part of a reunified Germany.

With further enlargement planned to include the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Cyprus and Malta , the Copenhagen criteria for candidate members to join the EU were agreed upon in June The expansion of the EU introduced a new level of complexity and discord.

In , euro banknotes and coins replaced national currencies in 12 of the member states. Since then, the eurozone has increased to encompass 19 countries.

The euro currency became the second largest reserve currency in the world. In , Bulgaria and Romania became EU members.

The same year, Slovenia adopted the euro, [63] followed in by Cyprus and Malta , by Slovakia in , by Estonia in , by Latvia in , and by Lithuania in In particular, it changed the legal structure of the European Union, merging the EU three pillars system into a single legal entity provisioned with a legal personality , created a permanent President of the European Council , the first of which was Herman Van Rompuy , and strengthened the position of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.

In , the EU received the Nobel Peace Prize for having "contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy, and human rights in Europe.

From the beginning of the s, the cohesion of the European Union has been tested by several issues, including a debt crisis in some of the Eurozone countries , increasing migration from Africa and Asia , and the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the EU.

The following timeline illustrates the integration that has led to the formation of the present union, in terms of structural development driven by international treaties:.

Between then and as of February [update] 31 December , a transition period is in operation that keeps in place all other aspects of the relationship to allow businesses to prepare and for a free trade agreement to be negotiated.

The criteria for accession to the Union are included in the Copenhagen criteria , agreed in , and the Treaty of Maastricht Article Article 49 of the Maastricht Treaty as amended says that any "European state" that respects the "principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law", may apply to join the EU.

Whether a country is European or not is subject to political assessment by the EU institutions.

There are five recognised candidates for future membership of the Union: Turkey applied on 14 April , North Macedonia applied on 22 March as "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" , Montenegro applied in , Albania applied in , and Serbia applied in While the others are progressing, Turkish talks are at an effective standstill.

There are no mechanisms to remove member states from the union [77] but they may be sanctioned in accordance with article 7 of the Treaty on European Union.

In , This corresponds to 9. Of these, The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany 6. The EU contains about 40 urban areas with populations of over one million.

The largest metropolitan area in the EU is Paris. Survey Important documents, such as legislation, are translated into every official language and the European Parliament provides translation for documents and plenary sessions.

Due to the high number of official languages, most of the institutions use only a handful of working languages. Similarly, the Court of Justice of the European Union uses French as the working language, [97] while the European Central Bank conducts its business primarily in English.

Even though language policy is the responsibility of member states, EU institutions promote multilingualism among its citizens.

In addition, both are official languages of several EU member states. A total of twenty official languages of the EU belong to the Indo-European language family , represented by the Balto-Slavic , [h] the Italic , [i] the Germanic , [j] the Hellenic , [k] and the Celtic [l] branches.

Luxembourgish in Luxembourg and Turkish in Cyprus are the only two national languages that are not official languages of the EU.

The European Day of Languages is held annually on 26 September and is aimed at encouraging language learning across Europe.

The EU has no formal connection to any religion. The Article 17 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union [] recognises the "status under national law of churches and religious associations" as well as that of "philosophical and non-confessional organisations".

The preamble to the Treaty on European Union mentions the "cultural, religious and humanist inheritance of Europe". Christians in the European Union are divided among members of Catholicism both Roman and Eastern Rite , numerous Protestant denominations Anglicans , Lutherans , and Reformed forming the bulk of this category , and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

According to new polls about religiosity in the European Union in by Eurobarometer , Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union, accounting for Catholics are the largest Christian group, accounting for Across the EU, belief was higher among women, older people, those with religious upbringing, those who left school at 15 or 16, and those "positioning themselves on the right of the political scale".

Through successive enlargements , the European Union has grown from the six founding states Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands to the current Countries accede to the union by becoming party to the founding treaties , thereby subjecting themselves to the privileges and obligations of EU membership.

This entails a partial delegation of sovereignty to the institutions in return for representation within those institutions, a practice often referred to as "pooling of sovereignty".

To become a member, a country must meet the Copenhagen criteria , defined at the meeting of the European Council in Copenhagen.

These require a stable democracy that respects human rights and the rule of law ; a functioning market economy ; and the acceptance of the obligations of membership, including EU law.

Evaluation of a country's fulfilment of the criteria is the responsibility of the European Council.

Two territories have left the Union: Greenland an autonomous province of Denmark withdrew in ; [] the United Kingdom formally invoked Article 50 of the Consolidated Treaty on European Union in , and became the only sovereign state to leave when it withdrew from the EU in There are six countries that are recognised as candidates for membership : Albania , Iceland , North Macedonia , [m] Montenegro , Serbia , and Turkey , [] though Iceland suspended negotiations in Mont Blanc in the Alps is the highest peak in the EU.

The Danube pictured in Budapest , is the longest river in the European Union. Including the overseas territories of France which are located outside the continent of Europe, but which are members of the union, the EU experiences most types of climate from Arctic north-east Europe to tropical French Guiana , rendering meteorological averages for the EU as a whole meaningless.

The majority of the population lives in areas with a temperate maritime climate North-Western Europe and Central Europe , a Mediterranean climate Southern Europe , or a warm summer continental or hemiboreal climate Northern Balkans and Central Europe.

Cities are largely spread out across the EU with a large grouping in and around the Benelux. The EU operates through a hybrid system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making, [] [] and according to the principles of conferral which says that it should act only within the limits of the competences conferred on it by the treaties and of subsidiarity which says that it should act only where an objective cannot be sufficiently achieved by the member states acting alone.

Laws made by the EU institutions are passed in a variety of forms. Constitutionally, the EU bears some resemblance to both a confederation and a federation , [] [] but has not formally defined itself as either.

It does not have a formal constitution: its status is defined by the Treaty of European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

It is more integrated than a traditional confederation of states because the general level of government widely employs qualified majority voting in some decision-making among the member states, rather than relying exclusively on unanimity.

This is reflected in the fact that the member states remain the 'masters of the Treaties', retaining control over the allocation of competences to the Union through constitutional change thus retaining so-called Kompetenz-kompetenz ; in that they retain control of the use of armed force; they retain control of taxation; and in that they retain a right of unilateral withdrawal from the Union under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union.

In addition, the principle of subsidiarity requires that only those matters that need to be determined collectively are so determined.

Competence in scrutinising and amending legislation is shared between the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament, while executive tasks are performed by the European Commission and in a limited capacity by the European Council not to be confused with the aforementioned Council of the European Union.

The monetary policy of the eurozone is determined by the European Central Bank. The interpretation and the application of EU law and the treaties are ensured by the Court of Justice of the European Union.

There are also a number of ancillary bodies which advise the EU or operate in a specific area. EU policy is in general promulgated by EU directives , which are then implemented in the domestic legislation of its member states , and EU regulations , which are immediately enforceable in all member states.

Lobbying at EU level by special interest groups is regulated to try to balance the aspirations of private initiatives with public interest decision-making process [].

The European Parliament is one of three legislative institutions of the EU, which together with the Council of the European Union is tasked with amending and approving the Commission 's proposals.

MEPs are elected on a national basis and they sit according to political groups rather than their nationality. Each country has a set number of seats and is divided into sub-national constituencies where this does not affect the proportional nature of the voting system.

In the ordinary legislative procedure , the European Commission proposes legislation, which requires the joint approval of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union to pass.

This process applies to nearly all areas, including the EU budget. The Parliament is the final body to approve or reject the proposed membership of the Commission, and can attempt motions of censure on the Commission by appeal to the Court of Justice.

The President of the European Parliament currently David Sassoli carries out the role of speaker in Parliament and represents it externally.

The European Council gives political direction to the EU. It convenes at least four times a year and comprises the President of the European Council currently Charles Michel , the President of the European Commission and one representative per member state either its head of state or head of government.

It has been described by some as the Union's "supreme political authority". The European Council uses its leadership role to sort out disputes between member states and the institutions, and to resolve political crises and disagreements over controversial issues and policies.

It acts externally as a " collective head of state " and ratifies important documents for example, international agreements and treaties.

Tasks for the President of the European Council are ensuring the external representation of the EU, [] driving consensus and resolving divergences among member states, both during meetings of the European Council and over the periods between them.

The European Council should not be mistaken for the Council of Europe , an international organisation independent of the EU based in Strasbourg.

The European Commission acts both as the EU's executive arm , responsible for the day-to-day running of the EU, and also the legislative initiator , with the sole power to propose laws for debate.

The 27 Commissioners as a single body are subject to approval or otherwise by vote of the European Parliament.

The Council of the European Union also called the "Council" [] and the "Council of Ministers", its former title [] forms one half of the EU's legislature.

It consists of a government minister from each member state and meets in different compositions depending on the policy area being addressed.

Notwithstanding its different configurations, it is considered to be one single body. In some policies, there are several member states that ally with strategic partners within the Union.

In , the budget of the then European Economic Community was 0. The Court of Auditors is legally obliged to provide the Parliament and the Council specifically, the Economic and Financial Affairs Council with "a statement of assurance as to the reliability of the accounts and the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions".

The European Court of Auditors has signed off the European Union accounts every year since and, while making it clear that the European Commission has more work to do, has highlighted that most of the errors take place at national level.

EU member states retain all powers not explicitly handed to the European Union. In some areas the EU enjoys exclusive competence.

These are areas in which member states have renounced any capacity to enact legislation. In other areas the EU and its member states share the competence to legislate.

While both can legislate, member states can only legislate to the extent to which the EU has not. In other policy areas the EU can only co-ordinate, support and supplement member state action but cannot enact legislation with the aim of harmonising national laws.

That a particular policy area falls into a certain category of competence is not necessarily indicative of what legislative procedure is used for enacting legislation within that policy area.

Different legislative procedures are used within the same category of competence, and even with the same policy area. The distribution of competences in various policy areas between Member States and the Union is divided in the following three categories:.

The EU is based on a series of treaties. These first established the European Community and the EU, and then made amendments to those founding treaties.

These legal powers include the ability to enact legislation [p] which can directly affect all member states and their inhabitants.

Under the principle of supremacy , national courts are required to enforce the treaties that their member states have ratified, and thus the laws enacted under them, even if doing so requires them to ignore conflicting national law, and within limits even constitutional provisions.

The direct effect and supremacy doctrines were not explicitly set out in the European Treaties but were developed by the Court of Justice itself over the s, apparently under the influence of its then most influential judge, Frenchman Robert Lecourt [].

The General Court mainly deals with cases taken by individuals and companies directly before the EU's courts, [] and the European Union Civil Service Tribunal adjudicates in disputes between the European Union and its civil service.

The treaties declare that the EU itself is "founded on the values of respect for human dignity , freedom , democracy, equality , the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities The charter is a codified catalogue of fundamental rights against which the EU's legal acts can be judged.

It consolidates many rights which were previously recognised by the Court of Justice and derived from the "constitutional traditions common to the member states.

The EU is independent from the Council of Europe, although they share purpose and ideas, especially on the rule of law, human rights and democracy.

The EU has also promoted human rights issues in the wider world. The EU opposes the death penalty and has proposed its worldwide abolition.

Abolition of the death penalty is a condition for EU membership. The main legal acts of the EU come in three forms: regulations , directives , and decisions.

Regulations become law in all member states the moment they come into force, without the requirement for any implementing measures, [v] and automatically override conflicting domestic provisions.

The details of how they are to be implemented are left to member states. Decisions offer an alternative to the two above modes of legislation.

They are legal acts which only apply to specified individuals, companies or a particular member state. They are most often used in competition law , or on rulings on State Aid, but are also frequently used for procedural or administrative matters within the institutions.

Regulations, directives, and decisions are of equal legal value and apply without any formal hierarchy.

The European Ombudsman was established by the Maastricht Treaty. The ombudsman is elected by the European Parliament for the length of the Parliament's term, and the position is renewable.

The borders inside the Schengen Area between Germany and Austria. Seat of Frontex in Warsaw, Poland. Since the creation of the EU in , it has developed its competencies in the area of justice and home affairs; initially at an intergovernmental level and later by supranationalism.

Accordingly, the Union has legislated in areas such as extradition , [] family law, [] asylum law, [] and criminal justice.

The Union has also established agencies to co-ordinate police, prosecutorial and immigrations controls across the member states: Europol for co-operation of police forces, [] Eurojust for co-operation between prosecutors, [] and Frontex for co-operation between border control authorities.

This co-operation had to particularly be developed with the advent of open borders through the Schengen Agreement and the associated cross border crime.

Foreign policy co-operation between member states dates from the establishment of the Community in , when member states negotiated as a bloc in international trade negotiations under the EU's common commercial policy.

The aims of the CFSP are to promote both the EU's own interests and those of the international community as a whole, including the furtherance of international co-operation, respect for human rights, democracy, and the rule of law.

The unanimity and difficult issues treated under the CFSP sometimes lead to disagreements, such as those which occurred over the war in Iraq.

The coordinator and representative of the CFSP within the EU is the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy who speaks on behalf of the EU in foreign policy and defence matters, and has the task of articulating the positions expressed by the member states on these fields of policy into a common alignment.

The High Representative heads up the European External Action Service EEAS , a unique EU department [] that has been officially implemented and operational since 1 December on the occasion of the first anniversary of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon.

Besides the emerging international policy of the European Union, the international influence of the EU is also felt through enlargement.

The perceived benefits of becoming a member of the EU act as an incentive for both political and economic reform in states wishing to fulfil the EU's accession criteria, and are considered an important factor contributing to the reform of European formerly Communist countries.

The predecessors of the European Union were not devised as a military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufficient for defence purposes.

France is the only member officially recognised as a nuclear weapon state holding a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.

Following the Kosovo War in , the European Council agreed that "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and the readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO".

To that end, a number of efforts were made to increase the EU's military capability, notably the Helsinki Headline Goal process.

EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from middle and northern Africa to the western Balkans and western Asia.

It aims to detect and stop illegal immigration, human trafficking and terrorist infiltration. In the European Commission presented its proposal for a new European Border and Coast Guard Agency having a stronger role and mandate along with national authorities for border management.

In an EU consisting of 27 members, substantial security and defence co-operation is increasingly relying on collaboration among all member states.

In , the average among EU countries was 0. The EU uses foreign relations instruments like the European Neighbourhood Policy which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.

These countries, primarily developing countries, include some who seek to one day become either a member state of the European Union , or more closely integrated with the European Union.

The EU offers financial assistance to countries within the European Neighbourhood, so long as they meet the strict conditions of government reform, economic reform and other issues surrounding positive transformation.

This process is normally underpinned by an Action Plan, as agreed by both Brussels and the target country. International recognition of sustainable development as a key element is growing steadily.

The SDGs recognize that all countries must stimulate action in the following key areas - people, planet , prosperity, peace and partnership - in order to tackle the global challenges that are crucial for the survival of humanity.

Partnership and cooperation agreements are bilateral agreements with non-member nations. The European Union is the largest exporter in the world [] and as of the largest importer of goods and services.

In the eurozone , trade is helped by not having any currency differences to deal with amongst most members. The European Union Association Agreement does something similar for a much larger range of countries, partly as a so-called soft approach 'a carrot instead of a stick' to influence the politics in those countries.

When the EU negotiates trade related agreement outside the WTO framework, the subsequent agreement must be approved by each individual EU member state government.

The European Union has concluded free trade agreements FTAs [] and other agreements with a trade component with many countries worldwide and is negotiating with many others.

The currency union represents million EU citizens. Of the top largest corporations in the world measured by revenue in , had their headquarters in the EU.

Two of the original core objectives of the European Economic Community were the development of a common market, subsequently becoming a single market , and a customs union between its member states.

The single market involves the free circulation of goods, capital, people, and services within the EU , [] and the customs union involves the application of a common external tariff on all goods entering the market.

Once goods have been admitted into the market they cannot be subjected to customs duties, discriminatory taxes or import quotas , as they travel internally.

The non-EU member states of Iceland , Norway , Liechtenstein and Switzerland participate in the single market but not in the customs union.

Free movement of capital is intended to permit movement of investments such as property purchases and buying of shares between countries.

Post-Maastricht there has been a rapidly developing corpus of ECJ judgements regarding this initially neglected freedom. The free movement of capital is unique insofar as it is granted equally to non-member states.

The free movement of persons means that EU citizens can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country.

This required the lowering of administrative formalities and recognition of professional qualifications of other states. The free movement of services and of establishment allows self-employed persons to move between member states to provide services on a temporary or permanent basis.

This lacuna has been addressed by the recently passed Directive on services in the internal market which aims to liberalise the cross border provision of services.

The creation of a European single currency became an official objective of the European Economic Community in In , having negotiated the structure and procedures of a currency union, the member states signed the Maastricht Treaty and were legally bound to fulfil the agreed-on rules including the convergence criteria if they wanted to join the monetary union.

The states wanting to participate had first to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. In the currency union started, first as an accounting currency with eleven member states joining.

In , the currency was fully put into place, when euro notes and coins were issued and national currencies began to phase out in the eurozone, which by then consisted of 12 member states.

The eurozone constituted by the EU member states which have adopted the euro has since grown to 19 countries.

The aim of this financial control system is to ensure the economic stability of the EU. To prevent the joining states from getting into financial trouble or crisis after entering the monetary union, they were obliged in the Maastricht treaty to fulfil important financial obligations and procedures, especially to show budgetary discipline and a high degree of sustainable economic convergence, as well as to avoid excessive government deficits and limit the government debt to a sustainable level.

The European Commission working sectors are: Aeronautics, automotive, biotechnology, chemicals, construction, cosmetics, defense, electronics, firearms, food and drink, gambling, healthcare, maritime, mechanics, medical, postal, raw materials, space, textile, tourism, toys and Social economy Societas cooperativa Europaea.

The EU has had legislative power in the area of energy policy for most of its existence; this has its roots in the original European Coal and Steel Community.

The introduction of a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was approved at the meeting of the European Council in October , and the first draft policy was published in January The EU has five key points in its energy policy: increase competition in the internal market , encourage investment and boost interconnections between electricity grids; diversify energy resources with better systems to respond to a crisis; establish a new treaty framework for energy co-operation with Russia while improving relations with energy-rich states in Central Asia [] and North Africa; use existing energy supplies more efficiently while increasing renewable energy commercialisation ; and finally increase funding for new energy technologies.

There is a strong dependence on Russian energy that the EU has been attempting to reduce. Rail transport in Europe is being synchronised with the European Rail Traffic Management System ERTMS , an initiative to greatly enhance safety, increase efficiency of trains and enhance cross-border interoperability of rail transport in Europe by replacing signalling equipment with digitised mostly wireless versions and by creating a single Europe-wide standard for train control and command systems.

The developing European transport policies will increase the pressure on the environment in many regions by the increased transport network.

In the pre EU members, the major problem in transport deals with congestion and pollution. After the recent enlargement, the new states that joined since added the problem of solving accessibility to the transport agenda.

The Galileo positioning system is another EU infrastructure project. The Galileo project was launched partly to reduce the EU's dependency on the US-operated Global Positioning System , but also to give more complete global coverage and allow for greater accuracy, given the aged nature of the GPS system.

The policy's price controls and market interventions led to considerable overproduction. These were intervention stores of products bought up by the Community to maintain minimum price levels.

To dispose of surplus stores, they were often sold on the world market at prices considerably below Community guaranteed prices, or farmers were offered subsidies amounting to the difference between the Community and world prices to export their products outside the Community.

This system has been criticised for under-cutting farmers outside Europe, especially those in the developing world.

Since the beginning of the s, the CAP has been subject to a series of reforms. Initially, these reforms included the introduction of set-aside in , where a proportion of farm land was deliberately withdrawn from production, milk quotas and, more recently, the 'de-coupling' or disassociation of the money farmers receive from the EU and the amount they produce by the Fischler reforms in Agriculture expenditure will move away from subsidy payments linked to specific produce, toward direct payments based on farm size.

This is intended to allow the market to dictate production levels. The EU operates a competition policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the single market.

The Competition Commissioner , currently Margrethe Vestager , is one of the most powerful positions in the Commission, notable for the ability to affect the commercial interests of trans-national corporations.

The EU seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 6. The EU has long sought to mitigate the effects of free markets by protecting workers rights and preventing social and environmental dumping.

To this end it has adopted laws establishing minimum employment and environmental standards. The EU has also sought to coordinate the social security and health systems of member states to facilitate individuals exercising free movement rights and to ensure they maintain their ability to access social security and health services in other member states.

The European Social Charter is the main body that recognizes the social rights of European citizens.

A European unemployment insurance has been proposed among others by the commissioner of Jobs Nicolas Schmit. Housing, youth, childhood, Functional diversity or elderly care are supportive competencies of the European Union and can be financed by the European Social Fund.

Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds are supporting the development of underdeveloped regions of the EU. Such regions are primarily located in the states of central and southern Europe.

Demographic transition to a society of aging population, low fertility-rates and depopulation of non-metropolitan regions is tackled within this policies.

In , when the EEC was founded, it had no environmental policy. European policy-makers originally increased the EU's capacity to act on environmental issues by defining it as a trade problem.

The legal basis for EU environmental policy was established with the introduction of the Single European Act in Initially, EU environmental policy focused on Europe.

More recently, the EU has demonstrated leadership in global environmental governance, e. This international dimension is reflected in the EU's Sixth Environmental Action Programme, [] which recognises that its objectives can only be achieved if key international agreements are actively supported and properly implemented both at EU level and worldwide.

The Lisbon Treaty further strengthened the leadership ambitions. Mitigating climate change is one of the top priorities of EU environmental policy.

In the Elections to the European Parliament in , the green parties increased their power, possibly because of the rise of post materialist values.

Proposals to reach a zero carbon economy in the European Union by were suggested in - Almost all member states supported that goal at an EU summit in June Basic education is an area where the EU's role is limited to supporting national governments.

In higher education, the policy was developed in the s in programmes supporting exchanges and mobility. The most visible of these has been the Erasmus Programme , a university exchange programme which began in There are similar programmes for school pupils and teachers, for trainees in vocational education and training , and for adult learners in the Lifelong Learning Programme — These programmes are designed to encourage a wider knowledge of other countries and to spread good practices in the education and training fields across the EU.

Scientific development is facilitated through the EU's Framework Programmes , the first of which started in The aims of EU policy in this area are to co-ordinate and stimulate research.

The EU has no major competences in the field of health care and Article 35 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms that "A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and activities".

The European Commission 's Directorate-General for Health and Consumers seeks to align national laws on the protection of people's health, on the consumers' rights, on the safety of food and other products.

All EU and many other European countries offer their citizens a free European Health Insurance Card which, on a reciprocal basis, provides insurance for emergency medical treatment insurance when visiting other participating European countries.

The EU has some of the highest levels of life expectancy in the world, with Spain, Italy, Sweden, France, Malta, Ireland, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Greece all among the world's top 20 countries with the highest life expectancy.

The overall life expectancy in the EU in was Cultural co-operation between member states has been an interest of the EU since its inclusion as a community competency in the Maastricht Treaty.

Association football is by far the most popular sport in the European Union by the number of registered players.

The other sports with the most participants in clubs are tennis, basketball, swimming, athletics, golf, gymnastics, equestrian sports, handball, volleyball and sailing.

Sport is mainly the responsibility of the member states or other international organisations, rather than of the EU.

There are some EU policies that have affected sport, such as the free movement of workers, which was at the core of the Bosman ruling that prohibited national football leagues from imposing quotas on foreign players with European citizenship.

The Treaty of Lisbon requires any application of economic rules to take into account the specific nature of sport and its structures based on voluntary activity.

The flag used is the Flag of Europe , which consists of a circle of 12 golden stars on a blue background. Originally designed in for the Council of Europe, the flag was adopted by the European Communities , the predecessors of the present Union, in The Council of Europe gave the flag a symbolic description in the following terms, [] though the official symbolic description adopted by the EU omits the reference to the "Western world": [].

Against the blue sky of the Western world, the stars symbolise the peoples of Europe in a form of a circle, the sign of union.

The number of stars is invariably twelve , the figure twelve being the symbol of perfection and entirety. United in Diversity was adopted as the motto of the Union in the year , having been selected from proposals submitted by school pupils.

The anthem of the Union is an instrumental version of the prelude to the Ode to Joy , the 4th movement of Ludwig van Beethoven 's ninth symphony.

The anthem was adopted by European Community leaders in and has since been played on official occasions. Known from the myth in which Zeus seduces her in the guise of a white bull, Europa has also been referred to in relation to the present Union.

Statues of Europa and the bull decorate several of the Union's institutions and a portrait of her is seen on the series of Euro banknotes.

The bull is, for its part, depicted on all residence permit cards. The Commission has named one of its central buildings in Brussels after Charlemagne and the city of Aachen has since awarded the Charlemagne Prize to champions of European unification.

Media freedom is a fundamental right that applies to all member states of the European Union and its citizens , as defined in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights as well as the European Convention on Human Rights.

The majority of media in the European Union are national-oriented. It provides support for the development, promotion and distribution of European works within Europe and beyond.

The European Union has had a significant positive economic impact on most member states. The European Union has contributed to peace in Europe, in particular by pacifying border disputes.

The European Union has contributed to the spread of democracy, in particular by encouraging democratic reforms in aspiring Eastern European member states after the collapse of the USSR.

Daniel Keleman argues that over time, the EU has proved beneficial to leaders who are overseeing democratic backsliding, as the EU is reluctant to intervene in domestic politics, gives the authoritarians funds which they can use to strengthen their regimes, and because freedom of movement within the EU allows dissenting citizens to leave their backsliding countries.

Cite error: A list-defined reference named "OED" is not used in the content see the help page. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Europol Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands. Eurojust Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands. Main article: Economy of the European Union.

Clockwise from top left: A standardised passport design, displaying the name of the member state, the national arms and the words "European Union" given in their official language s.

Right: 19 of the 27 EU member states have adopted the euro as their legal tender. Main article: Energy policy of the European Union.

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Further information: European Heritage Label. European Union portal Europe portal. Three of them — English, French and German — have the higher status of procedural languages and are used in the day-to-day workings of the European institutions.

The population of the UK is roughly 0. Baltic: Latvian and Lithuanian. For more information see Special member state territories and the European Union.

See also: Factortame litigation : Factortame Ltd. Secretary of State for Transport No. This is a political and not a legal requirement for membership.

Amministrazione delle Finanze [] ECR Danish Finance Ministry. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 3 August Special Eurobarometer.

European Union: European Commission. Those two Treaties shall have the same legal value. The Union shall replace and succeed the European Community ".

Retrieved 1 February International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 11 December The United Nations. Retrieved 19 March European Union.

Europa web portal. Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 27 September Retrieved 29 June Europa Glossary.

Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 6 September The Council of the European Union. Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 10 August Retrieved 8 September International Studies Review.

Rochester, N. The Guardian. Retrieved 8 June Vienna Institute of Demography. Retrieved 12 February Retrieved 1 July BBC News. The European Superpower.

Retrieved 22 November Revue des Sciences Religieuses in French. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Heritage and shared histories in the European Union".

Group 6 Live now. Group 7 Live now. Group 8 Live now. Group 9 Live now. The finals in Hungary and Slovenia will be split over two periods.

See all the qualifying results so far. Watch the goals from the final in Udine as Spain claimed Under glory. A record 78 goals were scored in 21 games as Spain won their fifth U21 title: watch them all now.

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Comments (2)

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