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Bulgarien Euro

Bulgarien Euro Euro macht das Land attraktiv

Helfen würde das aber vor allem den Euroländern. Inmitten der Corona-Krise hat Bulgariens Regierung angekündigt, die Einführung des Euro. Der bulgarische Lew war an die ehemalige DM gekoppelt und entspricht deshalb seit der Euroeinführung: 1 Euro = 1, Lewa. Bei einem Treffen zwischen. Der Beitrag Bulgariens zum Wechselkursmechanismus und der Bankenunion war für diesen Juli vorgesehen. Wegen Corona dürfte er nun erst. Die bulgarische Währung Lew ist schon lange an den Eurokurs gekoppelt. Die meisten Anforderungen für die Euro-Mitgliedschaft hätte Bulgarien. Bulgarien wird den EuroDiesen Link in einer anderen Sprache aufrufenEN••• einführen, sobald das Land die notwendigen Voraussetzungen.

Bulgarien Euro

Bulgarien will in die Eurozone. Die Europäische Zentralbank stellt Bedingungen, die noch kein Euro-Kandidaten-Land erfüllen musste. Die bulgarische Währung Lew ist schon lange an den Eurokurs gekoppelt. Die meisten Anforderungen für die Euro-Mitgliedschaft hätte Bulgarien. Die bulgarische Regierung will sich auf dem Weg zur Euro-Einführung mehr Zeit lassen.

Bulgarien Euro Video

Greenwood Publishing Group. Brendan Revaluation Definition A revaluation of a currency is an upward read more to a country's official exchange rate and is calculated relative to a chosen baseline. Main article: Culture of Bulgaria. Archived from the original PDF on 10 July Bulgaria is a unitary state. Retrieved 10 December Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg war der alte Lew in der neu gegründeten Volksrepublik Bulgarien wertlos geworden, weshalb am 1. Iikka Korhonen von der Zentralbank Finnlands weist darauf hin, dass sobald Bulgarien den Euro eingeführt hat, der Präsident der Link Zentralbank zum Rat der Europäischen Zentralbank gehören und andere Herzogenreuth Beste Spielothek finden in der BNB ihrerseits an verschiedenen Kommissionen teilnehmen werden und somit Einfluss auf die Entscheidungen auf hoher Ebene nehmen können. Rosenöl und Joghurt — das sind link Wahrzeichen, mit denen Menschen aus aller Welt Bulgarien verbinden. Um Bulgarien Euro Heilkraft des Rosenöls und Joghurts ranken sich. Damit wollte er den Bulgaren mehr Zeit für einen "absoluten Konsens" über die Einführung der Gemeinschaftswährung geben. Bitte hilf mitdie fehlenden Informationen zu recherchieren und einzufügen. Wahrscheinlich stammt es aus dem 8. In den frühen er Jahren setzte jedoch eine starke Inflation ein, sodass die Währung am 1. Noch vor wenigen Jahren stand die Mehrheit der Bulgaren der Euroeinführung positiv gegenüber.

Bulgarien Euro Video

Bulgarien Euro Überblick über die tagesschau.de-Seiten und weitere ARD Online-Angebote

Ihr Duft und Geschmack überraschen jeden Touristen, der unser Land besucht. Meinungsforscher hatten Anfang ermittelt, dass lediglich 19 Prozent der Bulgaren die Einführung des Euro unterstützten. Karsten Staehr. Versteckte Kategorie: Wikipedia:Veraltet. Dieser Kurs ist durch bulgarisches Gesetz festgelegt und ändert sich daher nicht siehe auch Currency Board. Die bulgarischen Banken müssen Stresstests bestehen, auch eine Überwachung des Bankensektors und die volle Umsetzung der Antigeldwäscheregeln gehören dazu. Das Felsrelief zeigt einen tapferen Helden, der soeben einen Löwen erlegt hat. Bitte hilf mitBeste Spielothek in Grano finden fehlenden Informationen zu recherchieren und einzufügen. Der Lew unter Zar Boris III. Der Lew in der Volksrepublik Bulgarien; Der Lew seit 2 Euro. Bulgarien will in die Eurozone. Die Europäische Zentralbank stellt Bedingungen, die noch kein Euro-Kandidaten-Land erfüllen musste. Im Unterschied zu den anderen Ländern amtiert in Bulgarien aber ein Währungsrat und der Wechselkurs Euro-Lew ist genau festgelegt. Die bulgarische Regierung will sich auf dem Weg zur Euro-Einführung mehr Zeit lassen. Zudem erhalten Sie hier fūr Ihre Bulgarien-Reise die praktische Umrechnungstabelle Leva in Euro. Nehmen Sie diesen kleinen Reisebegleiter mit nach. Doch das sind politische Fragen. Bitte hilf mitdie fehlenden Informationen zu recherchieren und einzufügen. Januar eine Währungsreform durchgeführt wurde. Juli Bild nicht mehr verfügbar. Einen festen Zeitpunkt hat Bulgarien für die Einführung des Euros derzeit nicht. Bulgarien Euro

Up to this point, the currency code for the lev was BGL. In , the lev saw redenomination for the third time. One thousand old leva were worth one new lev, and the new lev equaled one Deutsche Mark.

The currency code was switched to BGN. Bulgaria received acceptance into the EU in , and the country intends to convert to the euro.

However, postponement of the conversion continues into , and no date is currently set. When the Deutsche Mark was replaced by the euro, the new pegged exchange rate became 1.

The exchange rate between the euro and lev is fixed at 1. The lev is not pegged to other currencies though, which means the rate will fluctuate.

The lower the rate, like 1. When the rate is higher, like 1. Financial Futures Trading. Investopedia uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience.

By using Investopedia, you accept our. Your Money. Personal Finance. Stotinki is used widely in the Bulgarian diaspora in Europe to refer to subunits of currencies other than the Bulgarian lev.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Criterion fulfilled. However, even if such "special circumstances" are found to exist, additional criteria must also be met to comply with the fiscal budget criterion.

Criterion not fulfilled. Bulgaria portal Money portal. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February , but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

The two governments began to normalise relations in , as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the United Nations member states.

In total, UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.

Radio Bulgaria. Archived from the original on 29 March Retrieved 2 September Retrieved 23 May Retrieved 22 April Ivan Angelov: Bulgaria needs a managed floating exchange rate".

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Archived from the original on 11 January Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 2 November Bulgaria gave the highest priority to scientific and technological advancement and the development of trade skills appropriate to an industrial state.

In approximately 80 percent of the population drew their living from the soil, but by less than one-fifth of the labour force was engaged in agriculture, with the rest concentrated in industry and the service sector.

January The previous Economic Survey of Bulgaria documented how a combination of difficult initial conditions, delays in structural reforms, Archived from the original PDF on 24 December Retrieved 16 July Kapital Daily.

Archived from the original on 16 July Business Insider. Ministry of Finance of Bulgaria. National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria.

Retrieved 22 July Retrieved 19 June Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project. Archived from the original PDF on 14 November Bulgarian National Bank.

The World Bank. Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 23 November Retrieved 10 October Center for the Study of Democracy.

The Guardian. The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 December Oxford Business Group. Retrieved 20 July The Sofia Echo. Archived from the original on 16 March Energy Information Administration.

November Food and Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on 28 March Fox News. Retrieved 14 July Kliment Ohridski Base.

General Geography and History of Livingston Island. Pimpirev and N. Sofia: St. Kliment Ohridski University Press.

Retrieved 15 July Delft Technical University. Retrieved 15 August Acta Astronautica. Bibcode : AcAau.. Archived from the original on 19 January Radiation Protection Dosimetry.

Darik News. Retrieved 19 March Retrieved 24 October International Trade Administration. Retrieved 15 June Railway Gazette International.

Retrieved 11 May Archived from the original on 2 June Bulgarian National Television. Retrieved 19 May Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 8 April Archived from the original on 5 November Migration In, From, and to Southeastern Europe.

The British Library. Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 25 February Retrieved 7 September Retrieved 20 May Health Systems in Transition.

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Religion and power in Europe: conflict and convergence. Pisa University Press. Parliament of Bulgaria. The early impetus of Bulgarian traditions in the arts was cut short by the Ottoman occupation in the 14th century, and many early masterpieces were destroyed.

Indiana University Press. Manchester University Press. Readings in Russian Civilization. And it was mainly from Bulgaria that a rich supply of literary monuments was transferred to Kiev and other centres.

The Rise of the West. Accordingly, when Bulgaria was converted to Christianity after , bringing massive Slavic-speaking populations within the pale of Christendom, a new literary language, Old Church Slavonic, directly based upon Bulgarian speech, developed for their use.

Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, — The Literary Encyclopedia. Volume 1. Bulgarian-Macedonian Folk Music. Bulgaria's scales are numerous, and it may be demonstrated that they are a fusion of Eastern and Western influences.

Among the scales which have come to the Balkans from Asia, the pentatonic is one of the most widely used in Bulgaria.

Grammy Awards. Westview Press. Archived from the original on 23 June Retrieved 13 December Retrieved 2 May Reporters Without Borders.

Diesen Namen bekam das bulgarische Geld, weil Beste Spielothek in Langelheim finden den Münzen das bulgarische Wappen mit dem Löwen aufgeprägt click. Top 5. Karsten Staehr. Auch in allen weiteren Punkten steht Bulgarien weit besser da als fast alle langjährigen Euro-Mitglieder. Borissow wies darauf hin, dass die Europäische Zentralbank zwar viel Geld zur Bewältigung der wirtschaftlichen Folgen der Corona-Krise bereitstelle. Eigentlich wäre es nur mehr eine Formalität, tatsächlich mit dem Euro zu zahlen. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Das Geld sei jedoch vor allem für die Staaten der Eurozone bestimmt. Dies entschied die Gemeinschaft am Radio Bulgarien Wirtschaft.

The Eastern Roman Empire lost some of these territories to the numerous early Slavs. They were invaded by small number of warlike Bulgars in the late 7th century who subdued the Slavs and founded there the First Bulgarian Empire in AD It dominated most of the Balkans and significantly influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script.

This state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the empire disintegrated in and fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries.

The Russo-Turkish War of —78 resulted in the formation of the third and current Bulgarian state. Many ethnic Bulgarians were left outside the new nation's borders, which stoked irredentist sentiments that led to several conflicts with its neighbours and alliances with Germany in both world wars.

In Bulgaria came under the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc and became a one-party socialist state The ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of and allowed multiparty elections.

Bulgaria then transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in , Bulgaria has been a unitary parliamentary republic composed of 27 provinces, with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation.

Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and mostly relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture.

Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; Bulgaria ranked as the most corrupt country in the European Union in The name Bulgaria is derived from the Bulgars , a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country.

Neanderthal remains dating to around , years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic , are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.

This result represents the earliest arrival of modern humans in Europe. The Thracians , one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians , appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC.

By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century.

The Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions.

Not long after the Slavic incursion, Moesia was once again invaded, this time by the Bulgars under Khan Asparukh.

Asparukh attacked Byzantine territories in Moesia and conquered the Slavic tribes there in The minority Bulgars formed a close-knit ruling caste.

Succeeding rulers strengthened the Bulgarian state throughout the 8th and 9th centuries. Krum introduced a written code of law [46] and checked a major Byzantine incursion at the Battle of Pliska , in which Byzantine emperor Nicephorus I was killed.

The conversion was followed by a Byzantine recognition of the Bulgarian church [48] and the adoption of the Cyrillic alphabet , developed in the capital, Preslav.

After Simeon's death, Bulgaria was weakened by wars with Magyars and Pechenegs and the spread of the Bogomil heresy. Samuil died shortly after the battle, [54] and by the Byzantines had conquered the First Bulgarian Empire.

Byzantine domestic policies changed after Basil's death and a series of unsuccessful rebellions broke out, the largest being led by Peter Delyan.

The empire's authority declined after a catastrophic military defeat at Manzikert against Seljuk invaders, and was further disturbed by the Crusades.

This prevented Byzantine attempts at Hellenisation and created fertile ground for further revolt. Kaloyan , the third of the Asen monarchs, extended his dominion to Belgrade and Ohrid.

He acknowledged the spiritual supremacy of the pope and received a royal crown from a papal legate.

The Asen dynasty became extinct in Internal conflicts and incessant Byzantine and Hungarian attacks followed, enabling the Mongols to establish suzerainty over the weakened Bulgarian state.

The Ottomans were employed as mercenaries by the Byzantines in the s but later became invaders in their own right.

Sozopol was the last Bulgarian settlement to fall, in Christians were considered an inferior class of people under the Ottoman system.

Bulgarians were subjected to heavy taxes including devshirme , or blood tax , their culture was suppressed, [64] and they experienced partial Islamisation.

The Austrians first backed an uprising in Tarnovo in , then a second one in , the Chiprovtsi Uprising in and finally Karposh's Rebellion in The Western European Enlightenment in the 18th century influenced the initiation of a national awakening of Bulgaria.

Up to 30, Bulgarians were killed as Ottoman authorities put down the rebellion. The massacres prompted the Great Powers to take action.

This allowed the Russian Empire to seek a military solution without risking confrontation with other Great Powers, as had happened in the Crimean War.

It was to set up an autonomous Bulgarian principality spanning Moesia , Macedonia and Thrace , roughly on the territories of the Second Bulgarian Empire , [75] [76] and this day is now a public holiday called National Liberation Day.

It was superseded by the Treaty of Berlin , signed on 13 July, which provided for a much smaller state only comprising Moesia and the region of Sofia , leaving large populations of ethnic Bulgarians outside the new country.

The Bulgarian principality won a war against Serbia and incorporated the semi-autonomous Ottoman territory of Eastern Rumelia in , proclaiming itself an independent state on 5 October After a disastrous defeat in the Second Balkan War , Bulgaria again found itself fighting on the losing side as a result of its alliance with the Central Powers in World War I.

Despite fielding more than a quarter of its population in a 1,,strong army [82] [83] and achieving several decisive victories at Doiran and Monastir , the country capitulated in The war resulted in significant territorial losses and a total of 87, soldiers killed.

The resulting political unrest led to the establishment of a royal authoritarian dictatorship by Tsar Boris III — Bulgaria entered World War II in as a member of the Axis but declined to participate in Operation Barbarossa and saved its Jewish population from deportation to concentration camps.

The government of Bogdan Filov subsequently failed to achieve peace with the Allies. Bulgaria did not comply with Soviet demands to expel German forces from its territory, resulting in a declaration of war and an invasion by the USSR in September But all wartime gains, with the notable exception of Southern Dobrudzha , were lost.

The Communist Party was forced to give up its political monopoly on 10 November under the influence of the Revolutions of Zhivkov resigned and Bulgaria embarked on a transition to a parliamentary democracy.

After several years of reforms it joined the European Union and single market in despite Brussels' concerns about government corruption.

Bulgaria occupies a portion of the eastern Balkan peninsula, bordering five countries— Greece and Turkey to the south, North Macedonia and Serbia to the west, and Romania to the north.

The Thracian Plain is roughly triangular, beginning southeast of Sofia and broadening as it reaches the Black Sea coast.

The Balkan mountains run laterally through the middle of the country from west to east. The mountainous southwest has two distinct alpine type ranges - Rila and Pirin , which border the lower but more extensive Rhodope Mountains to the east, and various medium altitude mountains to west, northwest and south, like Vitosha , Osogovo and Belasitsa.

The Black Sea coast is the country's lowest point. The Struma and the Maritsa are two major rivers in the south.

Bulgaria has a varied and changeable climate, which results from being positioned at the meeting point of the Mediterranean , Oceanic and Continental air masses combined with the barrier effect of its mountains.

Temperature amplitudes vary significantly in different areas. Continental air masses bring significant amounts of snowfall during winter.

The interaction of climatic, hydrological, geological and topographical conditions has produced a relatively wide variety of plant and animal species.

Partridges number some , individuals, making them the most widespread gamebird. In , the Bulgarian government adopted the National Biological Diversity Conservation Strategy, a comprehensive programme seeking the preservation of local ecosystems, protection of endangered species and conservation of genetic resources.

Bulgaria ranks 30th in the Environmental Performance Index , but scores low on air quality. Bulgaria is a parliamentary democracy where the prime minister is the head of government and the most powerful executive position.

The Constitution also provides possibilities of direct democracy, namely petitions and national referenda. Parties must register with the commission prior to participating in a national election.

Unlike the prime minister, presidential domestic power is more limited. The directly elected president serves as head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and has the authority to return a bill for further debate, although the parliament can override the presidential veto by a simple majority vote.

The National Assembly has the power to enact laws, approve the budget, schedule presidential elections, select and dismiss the prime minister and other ministers, declare war, deploy troops abroad, and ratify international treaties and agreements.

Overall, Bulgaria displays a pattern of unstable governments. The protest wave was notable for self-immolations, spontaneous demonstrations and a strong sentiment against political parties.

The subsequent snap elections in May resulted in a narrow win for GERB , [] but the Bulgarian Socialist Party eventually formed a government led by Plamen Oresharski after Borisov failed to secure parliamentary support.

They formed a coalition with the far-right United Patriots , who hold 27 seats. Freedom House has reported a continuing deterioration of democratic governance after , citing reduced media independence, stalled reforms, abuse of authority at the highest level and increased dependence of local administrations on the central government.

Bulgaria has a civil law legal system. The Supreme Administrative Court and the Supreme Court of Cassation are the highest courts of appeal and oversee the application of laws in subordinate courts.

The legal system is regarded by both domestic and international observers as one of Europe's most inefficient due to pervasive lack of transparency and corruption.

Counterintelligence and national security are the responsibility of the State Agency for National Security. Bulgaria is a unitary state.

A new administrative structure was adopted in parallel with the decentralization of the economic system. All areas take their names from their respective capital cities.

The provinces are subdivided into municipalities. Municipalities are run by mayors, who are elected to four-year terms, and by directly elected municipal councils.

Bulgaria is a highly centralized state where the Council of Ministers directly appoints regional governors and all provinces and municipalities are heavily dependent on it for funding.

Bulgaria became a member of the United Nations in and since has been a non-permanent member of the Security Council three times, most recently from to Euro-Atlantic integration has been a priority since the fall of communism, although the communist leadership also had aspirations of leaving the Warsaw Pact and joining the European Communities by Bulgaria deployed significant numbers of both civilian and military advisors in Soviet-allied countries like Nicaragua [] and Libya during the Cold War.

Bezmer and Graf Ignatievo air bases, the Novo Selo training range, and a logistics centre in Aytos subsequently became joint military training facilities cooperatively used by the United States and Bulgarian militaries.

Domestic defence is the responsibility of the all- volunteer Bulgarian armed forces , composed of land forces , navy and an air force.

The land forces consist of two mechanized brigades and eight independent regiments and battalions; the air force operates aircraft and air defence systems in six air bases, and the navy operates various ships, helicopters and coastal defence weapons.

A balanced budget was achieved in and the country began running a surplus the following year. The ministries of defence, the interior and justice are allocated the largest share of the annual government budget, whereas those responsible for the environment, tourism and energy receive the least amount of funding.

Value added tax , excise duties , corporate and personal income tax are national, whereas real estate, inheritance, and vehicle taxes are levied by local authorities.

After several consecutive years of high growth, repercussions of the financial crisis of — resulted in a 3.

Siphoning of public funds to the families and relatives of politicians from incumbent parties has resulted in fiscal and welfare losses to society.

The labour force is 3. Most of the exports are manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel products and food.

Quality Oriental tobacco is a significant industrial crop. Spending on research and development amounts to 0. Despite the lack of funding, research in chemistry, materials science and physics remains strong.

Bulgaria has made numerous contributions to space exploration. Telephone services are widely available, and a central digital trunk line connects most regions.

Bulgaria's strategic geographic location and well-developed energy sector make it a key European energy centre despite its lack of significant fossil fuel deposits.

Railroads are a major mode of freight transportation, although highways carry a progressively larger share of freight. The population of Bulgaria is 7,, people according to the national census.

The majority of the population, Turkish and Roma minorities account for 8. In the average total fertility rate TFR across Bulgaria was 1.

Bulgaria is in a state of demographic crisis. High death rates result from a combination of an ageing population, a high number of people at risk of poverty and a weak healthcare system.

Public expenditures for education are far below the European Union average as well. Education in primary and secondary public schools is free and compulsory.

Higher education consists of a 4-year bachelor degree and a 1-year master's degree. The country scores high in gender equality , ranking 18th in the Global Gender Gap Report.

High levels of female participation are a legacy of the Socialist era. More than three-quarters of Bulgarians subscribe to Eastern Orthodoxy.

Contemporary Bulgarian culture blends the formal culture that helped forge a national consciousness towards the end of Ottoman rule with millennia-old folk traditions.

Many of these are personified as witches, whereas other creatures like zmey and samodiva veela are either benevolent guardians or ambivalent tricksters.

The establishment of the Preslav and Ohrid literary schools in the 10th century is associated with a golden period in Bulgarian literature during the Middle Ages.

Zahari Zograf was a pioneer of the visual arts in the pre-Liberation era. Christo is the most famous Bulgarian artist of the 21st century, known for his outdoor installations.

Folk music is by far the most extensive traditional art and has slowly developed throughout the ages as a fusion of Far Eastern, Oriental, medieval Eastern Orthodox and standard Western European tonalities and modes.

A distinguishing feature is extended rhythmical time , which has no equivalent in the rest of European music.

The government has diverted EU funds to sympathetic media outlets and bribed others to be less critical on problematic topics, while attacks against individual journalists have increased.

Bulgarian cuisine is similar to that of other Balkan countries and demonstrates strong Turkish and Greek influences. Meat consumption is lower than the European average, given a cultural preference for a large variety of salads.

Bulgaria appeared at the first modern Olympic games in , when it was represented by gymnast Charles Champaud. Weight-lifting is a signature sport of Bulgaria.

Coach Ivan Abadzhiev developed innovative training practices that have produced many Bulgarian world and Olympic champions in weight-lifting since the s.

Football is the most popular sport in the country by a substantial margin. The national football team 's best performance was a semi-final at the FIFA World Cup , when the squad was spearheaded by forward Hristo Stoichkov.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Bulgaria disambiguation.

Country in Southeastern Europe. Main article: History of Bulgaria. Main article: First Bulgarian Empire. Main article: Second Bulgarian Empire.

Main article: Ottoman Bulgaria. Main article: Geography of Bulgaria. Main article: Politics of Bulgaria. Rumen Radev President.

Boyko Borisov Prime Minister. Main articles: Provinces of Bulgaria and Municipalities of Bulgaria. Largest cities or towns in Bulgaria Census [].

Main articles: Foreign relations of Bulgaria and Military of Bulgaria. Main article: Economy of Bulgaria. Main article: Science and technology in Bulgaria.

Main articles: Energy in Bulgaria and Transport in Bulgaria. Main article: Demographics of Bulgaria. Main article: Religion in Bulgaria.

Main article: Culture of Bulgaria. Main article: Sport in Bulgaria. Bulgaria portal. See Demographics. Bulvest The World Factbook.

Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 October Retrieved 29 May International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 30 March United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 10 December Transparency International. Retrieved 10 February Late Antiquity: a Guide to the Postclassical World.

Harvard University Press. Journal of Human Evolution. Nat Ecol Evol Nature BGN is the currency code for the Bulgarian lev, which is the official currency of the country of Bulgaria.

The currency code was BGL until The BGN is made up of stotinki. The currency's name comes from the archaic Bulgarian word "lev," which can be translated to mean "lion.

The plural form of lev is leva. The BGN is pegged at one euro equals 1. Some financial experts believe that Bulgaria should hold tight to the lev, keeping it strong and stable.

Keeping the lev stable has proven to be an excellent move for Bulgaria. The stability of the currency saw the country through external financial crises, such as the Great Recession of and the banking collapse of the Corporate Commercial Bank—Bulgaria's fourth-largest bank—in The Bulgarian economy is industrialized, and the country is upper-middle-class.

Primary exports include steel and iron, clothing, and machinery. The Bulgarian lev can be separated into four distinct historical periods.

The first circulation of Bulgarian currency occurred between and The currency remained intermittently on the gold standard between and and banknotes had gold or silver backing until Wartime pressures caused inflation in the country, and at revaluation one old lev exchanged for new leva.

The rates offered at some banks varied greatly. In July , Dyankov stated that the government would not adopt the euro as long as the European sovereign-debt crisis was ongoing, [1] [31] [32].

Goranov said he would begin talks with the Eurogroup [33] and a co-ordination council to prepare the country for euro zone membership.

The council was to draft a plan for the introduction of the euro, propose a target date, organisation and of the preparation work and coordination of the expert working groups.

Paramov argued that adoption would "trigger a number of positive economic effects": Sufficient money supply leading to increased lending which is needed to improve economic growth , getting rid of the currency board which prevents the national bank functioning as a lender of last resort to rescue banks in financial troubles, and finally private and public lending would benefit from lower interest rates at least half as high.

Following the parliamentary elections Borissov's government was re-elected. Borissov stated that he intended to apply to join ERM II [37] but Goranov elaborated that the government would only seek to join once the eurozone states were ready to approve the application, and that he expected to have clarity of this by the end of However, this deadline was put back to July due to extra conditions requested by Eurozone governments, namely that Bulgaria: [45].

While the CVM reforms are mentioned, and progress in judicial reform and organised crime is expected, leaving the CVM is not a precondition.

If concerns about risks ease and the process resumes, this would be supportive of the rating, as underlined by our view that all things being equal, we would upgrade Bulgaria's Long-Term Foreign-Currency IDR by two notches between admission to the ERM II and joining the euro.

Bulgaria met 2 out of the 5 criteria in the last convergence report published by the European Central Bank in June Because the lev is pegged to the euro at a fixed exchange rate, it can be argued that Bulgaria is already a de facto member of the euro area insofar that it cannot pursue an independent monetary policy and is therefore bound by the monetary policy and interest rate decisions of the European Central Bank ECB without having a say.

Adopting the euro and thereby becoming a de jure member of the euro area would enhance Bulgaria's position by giving it a voice within the ECB.

Moreover, the fact that the lev is pegged to the euro at a fixed exchange rate also means that Bulgaria cannot devalue its currency in order to make its exports more competitive.

Therefore, Bulgaria would not lose anything in this regard by adopting the euro. Other advantages of adopting the euro include the improved supervision of Bulgaria's systemically important banks once it has joined ERM II together with the Banking Union, and the decreased cost of borrowing and full access to the rescue packages of the euro area that are intended to deal with the economic effects of the COVID pandemic.

The Bulgarian language 's use of a Cyrillic script and its not straightforward transliteration of the word euro have caused some issues regarding the official use of the language relating to the euro.

Bulgaria maintained that its language's alphabet and phonetic orthography warranted the exception. This ruling has affected the design of euro banknotes.

Greek coins include the alternative Greek spelling on the national obverse side. Stotinki is used widely in the Bulgarian diaspora in Europe to refer to subunits of currencies other than the Bulgarian lev.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Criterion fulfilled. However, even if such "special circumstances" are found to exist, additional criteria must also be met to comply with the fiscal budget criterion.

Criterion not fulfilled. Bulgaria portal Money portal. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February , but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

The two governments began to normalise relations in , as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the United Nations member states.

In total, UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition. Radio Bulgaria.

Archived from the original on 29 March Retrieved 2 September Retrieved 23 May Retrieved 22 April Ivan Angelov: Bulgaria needs a managed floating exchange rate".

Retrieved 12 January Retrieved 18 June Retrieved 16 June The Sofia Echo. Retrieved 3 December Info Bulgaria. Archived from the original on 20 June Retrieved

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